It also asserts that Jews and Christians claim to be children of God Surah , and that only they will achieve salvation Surah Some of those who are Jews,  "pervert words from their meanings", Surah , and because they have committed wrongdoing, God has "forbidden some good things that were previously permitted them", thus explaining Jewish commandments regarding food, Sabbath restrictions on work, and other rulings as a punishment from God Surah They listen for the sake of mendacity Surah , twisting the truth, and practice forbidden usury, and therefore they will receive "a painful doom" Surah In the Muslim view, the crucifixion of Jesus was an illusion, and thus the supposed Jewish plots against him ended in complete failure.
Martin Kramer argues that "Islamic tradition did not hold up those Jews who practiced treachery against Muhammad as archetypes—as the embodiment of Jews in all times and places.
Specifically, Kramer believes that the twin concepts of the "eternal Jew" as the enemy of God and the "arch conspirator" are themes that are borrowed "from the canon of Western religious and racial antisemitism. Muhammad is known to have had a Jewish wife, Safiyya , who subsequently converted to Islam.
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The story of Safiyya ties into the Battle of Khaybar where, according to the Hadiths, Muhammad and the Muslim army conquered the city and the women and children were subsequently distributed as prisoners of war. According to Islamic sources, the Medinian Jews began to develop friendly alliances with Muhammad's enemies in Mecca to overthrow him, despite having agreed in the treaty of the Constitution of Medina    to take the side of him and his followers against their enemies.
Samuel Rosenblatt opines these incidents were not part of policies directed exclusively against Jews, and Muhammad was more severe with his pagan Arab kinsmen. According to Lewis, since the clash of Judaism and Islam was resolved and ended during Muhammad's lifetime with Muslim victory, no Muslim unresolved theological dispute fueled antisemitism. There is also a difference between Jewish denial of Christian and Muslim messages, since Muhammad never claimed to be a Messiah or Son of God, although he is referred to as "the Apostle of God".
According to Rosenblatt, Muhammad's disputes with his neighboring Jewish tribes left no marked traces on his immediate successors known as Caliphs. The first Caliphs generally based their treatment upon the Quranic verses encouraging tolerance. The hadith recordings of deeds and sayings attributed to Muhammad use both the terms Banu Israil and Yahud in relation to Jews, the latter term becoming ever more frequent and appearing mostly in negative context.
Jews in Medina are singled out as "men whose malice and enmity was aimed at the Apostle of God". However, they have none of the demonic qualities attributed to them in mediaeval Christian literature, neither is there anything comparable to the overwhelming preoccupation with Jews and Judaism except perhaps in the narratives on Muhammad's encounters with Medinan Jewry in Muslim traditional literature.
Except for a few notable exceptions Their ignominy stands in marked contrast to Muslim heroism, and in general, conforms to the Quranic image of "wretchedness and baseness stamped upon them" . Sahih Muslim and Sahih Bukhari record various recensions of a hadith where Muhammad had prophesied that the Day of Judgment will not come until Muslims and Jews fight each other. The Muslims will kill the Jews with such success that they will then hide behind stones or both trees and stones according to various recensions, which will then cry out to a Muslim that a Jew is hiding behind them and ask them to kill him.
The only one not to do so will be the Gharqad tree as it is the tree of the Jews. Different interpretations about the Gharqad tree mentioned in the Hadith exists. One of the interpretations is that the Gharqad tree is an actual tree. Israelis have been alleged to plant the tree around various locations for e.
Other claims about the tree are that it grows outside Herod's Gate or that it is actually a bush that grows outside Jaffa Gate which some Muslims believe where Jesus will return to Earth and slay the Dajjal , following the final battle between the Muslims and unbelievers which some believe will take place directly below the Jaffa Gate below the Sultan's Pool. Another interpretation that exists is that the mention of the Gharqad tree is symbolic and is in reference to all the forces of the world believed to conspire with the Jews against Muslims.
The following hadith which forms a part of these Sahih Muslim hadiths has been quoted many times, and it became a part of the charter of Hamas. According to Schweitzer and Perry, the hadith are "even more scathing than the Quran in attacking the Jews":. They are debased, cursed, anathematized forever by God and so can never repent and be forgiven; they are cheats and traitors; defiant and stubborn; they killed the prophets; they are liars who falsify scripture and take bribes; as infidels they are ritually unclean, a foul odor emanating from them — such is the image of the Jew in classical Islam, degraded and malevolent.
Klien and Bernard Lewis argue that antisemitism in pre-modern Islam is rare, and did not emerge until modern times. Lewis argues that there is little sign any deep-rooted emotional hostility directed against Jews, or any other group, that can be characterized as antisemitism.
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There were, however, clearly negative attitudes, which were in part the "normal" feelings of a dominant group towards subject groups. More specifically, the contempt consisted of Muslim contempt for disbelievers. According to Lewis, the outstanding characteristic of the classical Islamic view of Jews is their unimportance. The religious, philosophical, and literary Islamic writings tended to ignore Jews and focused more on Christianity. Although the Jews received little praise or even respect and were sometimes blamed for various misdeeds, there were no fears of Jewish conspiracy and domination, nor any charges of diabolic evil, nor accusations of poisoning the wells nor spreading the plague nor were they even accused of engaging in blood libels until Ottomans learned the concept from their Greek subjects in the 15th century.
Poliakov writes that various examples of medieval Muslim literature portray Judaism as an exemplary pinnacle of faith, and Israel being destined by this virtue. He quotes stories from The Book of One Thousand and One Nights that portray Jews as pious, virtuous and devoted to God, and seem to borrow plots from midrashim. However, Poliakov writes that treatment of Jews in Muslim literature varies, and the tales are meant for pure entertainment, with no didactic aim.
Ibn Hazm wrote that Ibn Nagraela was "filled with hatred" and "conceited in his vile soul". According to Schweitzer and Perry, some literature during the 10th and 11th century "made Jews out to be untrustworthy, treacherous oppressors, and exploiters of Muslims".
Antisemitism in Islam - Wikipedia
This propaganda sometimes even resulted in outbreaks of violence against the Jews. An 11th-century Moorish poem describes Jews as "a criminal people" and blames them for causing social decay, betraying Muslims and poisoning food and water. Martin Kramer writes that in Islamic tradition, in striking contrast with the Christian concept of the eternal Jew, the contemporary Jews were not presented as archetypes—as the embodiment of Jews in all times and places. Jews and Christians living under early Muslim rule were known as dhimmi s, a status that was later also extended to other non-Muslims like Hindus.
As dhimmis they were to be tolerated, and entitled to the protection and resources of the Ummah , the Muslim commonwealth. In return they had to pay a tax known as the jizya in accordance with Quran. These rights were legally established and enforced.
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Proselytizing on behalf of any faith but Islam was barred. Later additions to the code included prohibitions on adopting Arab names, studying the Quran, selling alcoholic beverages. Schweitzer and Perry give as examples of early Muslim antisemitism: 9th-century "persecution and outbreaks of violence"; 10th- and 11th-century antisemitic propaganda that "made Jews out to be untrustworthy, treacherous oppressors, and exploiters of Muslims".
This propaganda "inspired outbreaks of violence and caused many casualties in Egypt".
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An 11th-century Moorish poem describes Jews as "a criminal people" and alleges that "society is nearing collapse on account of Jewish wealth and domination, their exploitation and betrayal of Muslims; that Jews worship the devil, physicians poison their patients, and Jews poison food and water as required by Judaism, and so on. Jews under the Muslim rule rarely faced martyrdom or exile, or forced conversion and they were fairly free to choose their residence and profession.
Their freedom and economic condition varied from time to time and place to place. They paid regularly to support the Jewish institutions such as the rabbinical academy of Jerusalem. A significant number of their ministers and counselors were Jews. The Abbasids too similarly were respectful and tolerant towards the Jews under their rule. Benjamin of Tudela , a famous 12th-century Jewish explorer, described the Caliph al-Abbasi as a "great king and kind unto Israel".
Benjamin also further goes on to describe about al-Abassi that "many belonging to the people of Israel are his attendants, he knows all languages and is well-versed in the Law of Israel. He reads and writes the holy language [Hebrew]. With the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula , Spanish Judaism flourished for several centuries.
Thus, what some refer to as the " golden age " for Jews began. During this period the Muslims of Spain tolerated other religions, including Judaism, and created a heterodox society. Muslim relations with Jews in Spain were not always peaceful, however.
The Almohad dynasty, which overthrew the dynasty that ran Spain during the early Muslim era, offered Christians and Jews the choice of conversion or expulsion; in , one of their rulers ordered that all Jews in the country convert on pain of death forcing the Jewish rabbi, theologian , philosopher , and physician Maimonides to feign conversion to Islam before fleeing the country. In Egypt, Maimonides resumed practicing Judaism openly only to be accused of apostasy.
He was saved from death by Saladin 's chief administrator, who held that conversion under coercion is invalid. During his wanderings, Maimonides also wrote The Yemen Epistle , a famous letter to the Jews of Yemen , who were then experiencing severe persecution at the hands of their Muslim rulers. In it, Maimonides describes his assessment of the treatment of the Jews at the hands of Muslims:.
No nation has ever done more harm to Israel. None has matched it in debasing and humiliating us. None has been able to reduce us as they have We have borne their imposed degradation, their lies, their absurdities, which are beyond human power to bear We have done as our sages of blessed memory have instructed us, bearing the lies and absurdities of Ishmael In spite of all this, we are not spared from the ferocity of their wickedness and their outbursts at any time.