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Find out more about your rights as a buyer - opens in a new window or tab and exceptions - opens in a new window or tab. Postage and packaging. The seller hasn't specified a postage method to Germany. Contact the seller - opens in a new window or tab and request post to your location. Postage cost can't be calculated. Please enter a valid postcode. This may lead to confusion in some cases. The key feature of spreadsheets is the ability for a formula to refer to the contents of other cells, which may in turn be the result of a formula.
To make such a formula, one simply replaces a number with a cell reference. If C10 holds the value 3 the result will be But C10 might also hold its own formula referring to other cells, and so on. The ability to chain formulas together is what gives a spreadsheet its power. Many problems can be broken down into a series of individual mathematical steps, and these can be assigned to individual formulas in cells.
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Some of these formulas can apply to ranges as well, like the SUM function that adds up all the numbers within a range. Spreadsheets share many principles and traits of databases , but spreadsheets and databases are not the same thing. A spreadsheet is essentially just one table, whereas a database is a collection of many tables with machine-readable semantic relationships between them. While it is true that a workbook that contains three sheets is indeed a file containing multiple tables that can interact with each other, it lacks the relational structure of a database.
Spreadsheets and databases are interoperable—sheets can be imported into databases to become tables within them, and database queries can be exported into spreadsheets for further analysis. A spreadsheet program is one of the main components of an office productivity suite , which usually also contains a word processor , a presentation program , and a database management system.
Programs within a suite use similar commands for similar functions. Usually sharing data between the components is easier than with a non-integrated collection of functionally equivalent programs. This was particularly an advantage at a time when many personal computer systems used text-mode displays and commands, instead of a graphical user interface.
The word 'spreadsheet' came from 'spread' in its sense of a newspaper or magazine item text or graphics that covers two facing pages, extending across the center fold and treating the two pages as one large page. The compound word 'spread-sheet' came to mean the format used to present book-keeping ledgers —with columns for categories of expenditures across the top, invoices listed down the left margin, and the amount of each payment in the cell where its row and column intersect—which were, traditionally, a "spread" across facing pages of a bound ledger book for keeping accounting records or on oversized sheets of paper termed 'analysis paper' ruled into rows and columns in that format and approximately twice as wide as ordinary paper.
A batch "spreadsheet" is indistinguishable from a batch compiler with added input data, producing an output report, i.
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However, this concept of an electronic spreadsheet was outlined in the paper "Budgeting Models and System Simulation" by Richard Mattessich. These batch Spreadsheets dealt primarily with the addition or subtraction of entire columns or rows of input variables , rather than individual cells. Brian Walsh at Marquette University , Wisconsin. This program was written in Fortran.
Primitive timesharing was available on those machines. It was used to assist in the teaching of finance to business students. Students were able to take information prepared by the professor and manipulate it to represent it and show ratios etc. In , a book entitled Business Computer Language was written by Kimball, Stoffells and Walsh and both the book and program were copyrighted in and years later that copyright was renewed .
In the late s Xerox used BCL to develop a more sophisticated version for their timesharing system.
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A key invention in the development of electronic spreadsheets was made by Rene K. Pardo and Remy Landau, who filed in U. Patent 4,, on a spreadsheet automatic natural order calculation algorithm. Pardo and Landau developed and implemented the software in Data could be entered dynamically either by paper tape, specific file access, on line, or even external data bases.
In , three former employees from the General Electric computer company headquartered in Phoenix, Arizona set out to start their own software development house. Leroy Ellison, Harry N. Cantrell, and Russell E. Edwards found themselves doing a large number of calculations when making tables for the business plans that they were presenting to venture capitalists. They decided to save themselves a lot of effort and wrote a computer program that produced their tables for them. This program, originally conceived as a simple utility for their personal use, would turn out to be the first software product offered by the company that would become known as Capex Corporation.
A major application was opinion research tabulation. The user defined the names and labels for the rows and columns, then the formulas that defined each row or column. In , Autotab-II was advertised as extending the original to a maximum of " 1, rows and columns, combined in any proportion the user requires It was implemented by IBM in at least 30 countries. It ran on an IBM mainframe and was among the first applications for financial planning developed with APL that completely hid the programming language from the end-user. Through IBM's VM operating system , it was among the first programs to auto-update each copy of the application as new versions were released.
Users could specify simple mathematical relationships between rows and between columns. Compared to any contemporary alternatives, it could support very large spreadsheets.
It loaded actual financial data drawn from the legacy batch system into each user's spreadsheet on a monthly basis. It was designed to optimize the power of APL through object kernels , increasing program efficiency by as much as 50 fold over traditional programming approaches. APLDOT was dubbed a "spreadsheet" because financial analysts and strategic planners used it to solve the same problems they addressed with paper spreadsheet pads.